His house was painstakingly searched in a hunt for anti-Nazi propaganda material. Of special note was the increase in activity of the youth movement 'Werkleute' which during this period changed its attitudes and embraced Zionism. Adler was arrested on the eve of the war when he tried to smuggle a group of young Jews over the border but was released as a result of strenuous efforts made on his behalf. Its urban area has a population of 634,830, making it the sixth largest city in Germany. Published in Jerusalem, 1972, This is a translation from: Pinkas Hakehillot: Encyclopaedia of Jewish Communities, GermanyVolume 2, page 141, published by Yad At the last free elections - 6th November, 1932 - the Nazis obtained only 23.6% of the total vote, much less than the national average and only slightly more than the Social Democrats (23.0%) or of the Communists (20.9%), and even after the Nazis achieved power the left and centre parties declined to surrender easily. ... nimo og feuerbach feuerbachhood stuttgart deutschrap ghetto kiosk chillen. 16 likes. Although expelled from Württemberg, the Jews held their own owing to their commercial relations in the neighboring regions, while they were entitled to safe-conducts through the country in that they were "servants of the empire"; and the Christian merchants themselves, disregarding all attacks upon the Jews and all the threats of the government, continued to avail themselves of their services, and frequently used them as a means of carrying out some prohibited negotiation (ib. There have been no innovations, however, in the ritual of worship, but, on the contrary, many old customs have received increased observance. See more ideas about donor recognition, donor wall, wayfinding signage. In January 1934 while it was not possible to fire them from work under the law of returning the administration to Aryan control, two Jewish civil servants were sent to the concentration camp on the pretext that they were 'attached to young Aryans at their place of work'. Find the travel option that best suits you. Some time before the outbreak of war the authorities ordered the Office to arrange the lodging of a few hundred Jews from Baden, who had been temporarily transferred to Stuttgart. The association was formed by the well-known musician Karl Adler, who had been director of the Municipal Conservatory from 1922-1933 and had been dismissed immediately on the accession to power of the Nazis. The magistracy of the city, however, aided by the court chaplain, Lucas Osiander, brought charges against them, while the consistory declared that "next to the devil, the Jews are the worst enemies of the Christians"; to this the duke retorted that "the Jew is no magician, but you and those like you are worthless priests, and adulterers"; and Osiander, who had denounced the Jews from the pulpit, was obliged to leave the city. In 1934, among other courses which took place, was one on religious-artistic design, run by Hagai Yisrael with the participation and co-operation of the 'Jugendring'. The Loewy Family. LiftRig Consulting. In 1932 the 'Congregation of Yeshurun' was headed by a committee of three: Abraham Kulav (leader), Max Feldman (Treasurer) and Karl Kahn (Secretary). From then onwards, most of the various economic decrees against the Jews of Stuttgart and Württemberg generally, were gradually rescinded, especially those pertaining to trade in beef. The court bankers Seeligmann (1741) and Ullmann (1743) were permitted to reside in the city. At the same time Karl Weil was another active champion of their rights; he proposed a law which was submitted to the government in 1824, and aided in settling other legal matters as well, while Samuel Mayer, who later became professor at Tübingen, also defended the Jews. Bundesarchiv Koblenz R 581276,/581984, 170.-, Yizkor Book Project Throughout the years, Jewish bankers and industrialists were members of the local Chamber of Commerce: Rudolph Kaulla (1867-1877), Y. Max Neuberger (1877-1890), Louis Alsace (1878-1896) and Julius Alsace (1900-1917). By a decree of June 27, 1806, King Frederick I. conferred on the imperial and royal councilor Jacob Raphael Kaulla and a number of his relatives the citizenship of Württemberg for themselves and their descendants, in recognition of the services which he had rendered the country on critical occasions, and this family has since exerted an influence for good on the Jews of the entire district, especially on their coreligionists in Stuttgart. 1,5 Millionen Bewertungen 277 Tausend Bewertungen Siehst du, dazu eignet sich die App perfekt. 'The Dybbuk' was very successful and received excited reviews in the non-Jewish press; The industrialist, Adolph Wolff bought hundreds of tickets for the performances and distributed them freely among the poor. The building was designed by the architect Ernst Guggenheimer, a native of Stuttgart, who had been an eye-witness to the burning of the synagogue on 'Kristallnacht'. He granted the latter the freedom of trade which they desired, received them gladly, and sold them a house in the market-place, the "Armbrustschutzhaus," in which they held religious services. Adler organized an orchestra and choir formed of musicians who had been removed from their positions, a theatre group of actors, similarly employed, and art exhibitions both in and outside Stuttgart. Two years later the right of citizenship was denied them. 'The Society for the Encouragement of Crafts and Horticulture' continued to train young people in various technical professions and trades. In September of that year, following the publication of the 'Nuremberg Laws', the last of the Jews were removed from their positions of public service and only a few lawyers and doctors were permitted to continue to practice and only for Jewish clients. A Facebookhoz csatlakozva tarthatod a kapcsolatot Xtrem Hunecs nevű ismerősöddel és másokkal, akiket már ismersz. In 1710, however, Model Löw of Pforzheim, a favorite of the Count of Würben, had received permission to deal in cattle and jewels, and he had become jealous of the new favorites of the duke and had intrigued against them in a most scandalous manner; but finally his slanders were exposed, and he was imprisoned on Jan. 31, 1721, although he was released in 1726 to carry his case to the highest court. Das Werk und seine Teile sind urheberrechtlich geschützt. A number of the members of the community of Stuttgart are prominent in public life: the manufacturers Reif and Arnold and the merchant Reis are members of the municipal council; the advocate Erlanger is second vice-president of the board of aldermen; the district judge Stern, N. Levi, an advocate, and Kallmann, a judge of the higher court, are members of the judicial organization of the district, while N. Levi is also the president of the board of directors of the chamber of advocates of the superior court of Stuttgart. In the first decade of the 20th Century, the Jews of Eastern Europe in Stuttgart founded 'The Society of Eastern Jews for Guardians of the Commandments'. Shop-windows were smashed and in the doorways stood SS guards. On the 22nd August 1942 another transport of 1,072 Württemberg Jews, among them 53 from Stuttgart left for Theresienstadt. Another law required that notice was to be given immediately of the presence of non-resident Jews (1747), and the court banker Seeligmann was fined ten florins for having sheltered a Jew from another city without the knowledge of the provost. The lawyer Sigmund Loewy was head of the community from 1863-1871. Among its active members were the banker Ernst Pfeifer, Louis Porash and the Deputy Chief Rabbi of Stuttgart, David Stössl. The riots continued during the following days and only by the intervention of large numbers of the military was the situation returned to normal. In 1768 she shifted her operation to Hechingen and served the Prince of Hohenzollern-Hechingen. For adults Rabbi Kroner founded 'The Torah Study Group' which did much to disseminate Jewish values and broaden social work.. Together with residents of Stuttgart, who were imprisoned in Heuberg concentration camp for 'hostile political activity,' were numbered a few representatives of the Social Democratic Party to the Reichstag and State Parliament - among them, Johannes Fischer, who in the past had been a member of 'The Society for Defence Against Anti-Semitism', a few advocates and doctors, and members of the City Council who had been members of left-wing parties or were active democrats. The victims of this operation, officially named 'Resettlement in the country', were permitted to take with them a bed, chair, table and a trunk. The faculty of the Polytechnic High School of the city includes the Jewish teachers Kaufmann, Marx, and Schmidt; and that of the Conservatory for Music, Singing, and Dramatic Art, Professors Singer and Wien; while Gerstmann is a member of the regular company of the Hoftheater. In December 1893 Dr. Theodor Kroner (1845-1923), was named Municipal Rabbi and adviser on religious affairs to the Oberkirchenbehörde. On Oct. 2, 1888, he celebrated his jubilee of office, and on July 16, 1891, his eightieth birthday, receiving the greetings of king, government, and community. Starting in October 1935 he was ordered to submit his programmes to the Gestapo for approval and more than once was obliged to either change them or cancel entirely. David Nardlinger acted as a member of the Community Council from 1912-1932. Jonas Ansbacher officiated as Rabbi of 'The Congregation' from 1920-1925, the Cantor and teacher, Jakob Wechsler. In the year before his death Duke Frederick Eugene (1793-97) permitted the widow of the court banker Kaulla of Hechingen to establish a mercantile house at Stuttgart (Nov. 2, 1797). For many years the hostel was headed by Dr. Gustav Feldman, and the head-sister Francisca Oppenheimer of Berlin. 244, notes 3-4). In 1903 the records of the community of Stuttgart showed 62 births, 16 marriages in the synagogue, and 33 burials. During this time the number of the officials of the community was increased by the appointment of Cantor E. Gundelfinger and that of D. Stössel of Lathenbach, the latter acting as a teacher of religion and as the rabbi's assistant. On May 23, 1598, Frederick made an agreement with the members of Gabrieli's company, assigning them Neidlingen as a residence, but forbidding them all exercise of religion; and three months later they left the country. It may also refer to: Places. In 1805 the Duke granted full rights of citizenship to five of the family and in 1907 they joined the group of founders of the exclusive and prestigious City Museum; all that without at any time ignoring or relinquishing their religious affiliations or background. The parnasim, whose president was Eichberg, were Dr. Dreifuss, Solomon Jacob Kaulla, and Wolf von Kaulla. These deportees were sent directly to the gas-chambers. Thus, for example, they were not accepted into the ranks of the local chapter of the 'Bnei Brith' although that association had done much to ease their distress. Rabbi Wasserman published books on the lives of Jewish villagers in the area. The nurses of the hostel made free home visits to the distressed Jewish and non-Jewish population, and undertook the medical care of poor children at summer camps - especially among 'Eastern Jews' - under the auspices of the 'Bnei Brith' which, between 1901-1910 absorbed about 300 children. The argument dragged on for decades, and in the 1920's the demand was renewed by 120 members of the congregation. Thus, for instance, according to their own report, with the couple Max and Inez Krackauer, who tell that a few priests and other people from Stuttgart and Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt helped to hide them until the end of the war. Through his involvement, Jewish schoolchildren in the Municipal schools, were released from the need to write on the Sabbath and other Holy days. At the same time the social barriers were maintained and virtually all the citizens of Stuttgart continued to relate to the Jewish population with suspicion and reservations. Wiessmann was released four days later on the basis that he held an immigration visa for Brazil, and assisted in the release of others by obtaining visas for them as well. A society for the provision of a dowry for the daughters of poor families was formed in 1900 by 8 women under the chairmanship of Rabbi Theodor Kroner. 244, notes 3-4). "We strive to become the leading provider of lifting engineering services and personnel to the energy sector and beyond.” The religious school of the community has one rabbi and four teachers, and in the public institutions both rabbis and three teachers give organized instruction. The question of the Eastern Jews was debated in the Württemberg Landtag in 1917. He also founded charity and cultural societies and was active in developing further already existing national societies and organizations in Württemberg. The Jewish nurses and the Hostel's Director Dr. Gustav Feldman, also mobilized for medical service at the front. On the eve of the outbreak of the war, the authorities, on the pretext of 'reasons of security' delayed the exit of a group of emigrants despite the fact that the entire preparation, with all its formalities had been completed. Public worship then began, the first services being held in the houses of members of the community. Rabbi Kroner paid particular attention to Secondary school leavers, and in 1894 founded 'Youth Group' with 23 young people, the aims of which were to '...raise the banner of the Torah, spread the knowledge of Judaism, holy writings and the history of Israel, deepen Jewish awareness and involve itself in acts of charity for the needy of the community.' These families organized themselves as a private community and employed a Cantor and teacher. In 1952 a synagogue was erected on the site of the original Great Synagogue. The reign of Carl Alexander (1733-1737), on the other hand, brought many ameliorations and an increase in the number of communities. From there he went to the United States by way of Portugal. Following the pogroms carried out by the Cossacks in various parts of Eastern Poland and Galicia during the First World War, thousands of Jews fled to Germany, and of them many found sanctuary in Stuttgart, and that in spite of the annoyance and bitterness of the local non-Jews, and even of some of the Jews. At its annual conference in 1928, the 'Union' focussed its attention on the franchise of women to be elected to community institutions. With the passing of the riots 15 Jewish prisoners were brought from the concentration camps and ordered to demolish the remains of the ruined synagogues under the direction of the architect Ernst Guggenheimer. See more ideas about Shoes, Sneakers, Sneaker head. In February and March the same year, Jews were sent to the Gestapo cellars and there beaten mercilessly for hours on end. The industrialist Karl Löwy, was elected head of the community in 1933 and Dr. Martin Cohen led the department of community work. Together with him under arrest were the lawyer Albert Meitzner, the chairman of the 'Central Union' in Stuttgart, the winner of a decoration for bravery in the First World War and the chief accountant of the Oberrat, Julius Wiessmann (b.1898). The houses of the Jews were not touched by order of the Interior Minister of Württemberg, who was afterwards called to Berlin and severely censured. Hirsch was sentenced to death and executed in June 1937, in spite of the fact that at the time of the planning of the act, he was still a minor. Their entreaties were unavailing, and only Solomon, Emanuel, and the latter's wife, Feile, were allowed fourteen days to arrange their affairs ("Landesordnung," pp. Biddy Early's Irish Pub: Most Impressive Beer Garden In Kilkenny - See 54 traveller reviews, 43 candid photos, and great deals for Stuttgart, Germany, at Tripadvisor. In 1860 a ministerial report was published in Stuttgart which publicly praised the Jews of Württemberg and described them as 'good citizens, law-abiding, considerate and discreet, thrifty, and maintainers of a family life worthy of praise.' He had emigrated to Prague, made contacts with the Otto Strasser group and returned to Germany with the intention of blowing up the 'Stürmer' building and the Berlin Main Railway Station and, according to him, in so doing, proving the courage of the Jewish people. In 1936 he retired and died three years later. Search All 36 Records in Our Collections. In the same month a ceremony was held to celebrate the 20th anniversary of the 'Brothers' Help' society with the participation of many members of the parent community. After his death, in 1924, his place was taken by D. Wichler. The women's societies of Württemberg held a convention in 1927 in Stuttgart and founded the 'National Union of Jewish Women's Societies in Württemberg and Hohenzollern' whose aim was to co-ordinate social work, mutual help in the implementation of objectives, negotiations with state and national Jewish institutions of Württemberg and the struggle for the advancement of the status of women and their integration into community management and its organizations. Wassermann was the recipient of many honors. The Rabbi of 'The Congregation of Yeshurun' was Simon Bamberger. Rabbi Kroner was also known as an author of works on religious instruction in Jewish schools and research into Jewish history. One of the laws issued about this time decreed that circumcision might be performed only in a dwelling-house; this offers sufficient evidence that the community possessed a synagogue (even though it may have been but a small room for prayer), in which circumcisions had taken place; and the prohibition was probably due to the fact that children in being carried through the street aroused the displeasure of the populace. The 'Yad Vashem' Archives 01/285.- 02/158, /537.-08/75,/80, p.5.-M-1/E/642,/742; M-1/P-2/7,/57; M-1/P -2/7,/57; M-1/P-6/10.- PKG/Stuttgart/1960. Community and national organizations, like youth societies, women's organizations and religious organizations continued with their activities and annual conferences in Stuttgart. Whether this Moses Jäcklin is identical with the Moses Jecklin of Esslingen (1404-51) is uncertain. In 1597, the Jewish mathematician, Abramo Calorni (born in Mantua, Italy in 1540), was invited by Duke Friedrich the First to mine salt in Württemberg and through his influence, another Jew, Magino Gabrielli, of Venice, a specialist in the cultivation of silk-worms, and the head of a Jewish commercial company, was granted the privilege of settling in Stuttgart together with seven of his business partners. To these victims are added the orthodox teacher Felix David (b.1909) and his wife Ruth (1911), who both committed suicide the day after 'Kristallnacht' having first put an end to their children's lives (Ben-Zion, 1936 and Gideon, 1938), and the merchant Max Mellinger (b.1876), who was married to an 'Aryan' and killed himself on 22nd November, after his shop had been confiscated for use as an office. The owners of the shops were ordered to board up the shop-front entrances. In 1936 a ceremony to mark the 75th anniversary of the consecration of the synagogue took place with Dr. Heinman Auerbach, who until then had been acting as a second municipal Rabbi, officiating - and in that same year, following the retirement of Dr. Rieger, he was elected as Chief Rabbi of the community and member of the council. Weissmann was investigated searchingly on the operations and programmes of the 'Bnei Brith' and eventually signed a document transferring all its assets to the State of Württemberg. His most important book was his investigation into the Jews of Rome - 'Geschichte der Juden in Rom' which he wrote in collaboration with Rabbi Herman Vogelstein. At its head was the Court Agent Adolf Loewy. The inhabitants resented these proofs of the duke's friendship for the Jews, but he disregarded their restrictions, even after his reconciliation with them (Jan. 27, 1770); and his decree of Feb.10, 1779, that no Jew should be deprived of the right of residence unless convicted of crime, brought new families to the community of Stuttgart, while the destruction in 1782 of the gallows erected for Oppenheimer likewise evinced a friendly attitude toward the Jews. It represents all the Jews of Württemberg - about 700 all together, and in its service are a cemetery, a kosher restuarant, a ritual bath-house a religious school and a kindergarten. Biddy Early's Irish Pub: Nice drinking hole - See 55 traveler reviews, 45 candid photos, and great deals for Stuttgart, Germany, at Tripadvisor. The community maintains strong ties with Israel, and its financial contribution to the building of Israel is considerable. Artur Essinger (b.1857), was one of the conspicuous community leaders, and its head 1929-1938. In 1933, the 19 year-old Heinz Bronstein emigrated to France, even though he had been brought up in the Christian faith. They acted as Cantors, prayer-leaders, and Readers of The Law, with no thought or expectation of recompense. In 1946 the number of Jews living in Stuttgart and its suburbs reached 1,176 souls; most of these afterwards emigrated to Israel and other countries.